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Yes, it does.
Google Play Store is now necessary only for processing the purchase or subscription. The Premium is associated with your Locus Store account that you are logged in during the Premium purchase.
So, when you uninstall Google Play Store and services after the Premium purchase, you can go on using the Premium version with all its features.
When you purchase Premium on one phone with Google Play and then you install Locus Map on another device without Google, log in Locus Store with the same Locus account you used during the purchase on the first phone - you'll get all your Premium features there too!